Saturated, Monounsaturated, and Polyunsaturated Fats in Your Diet…
Despite a century of research, scientists continue arguing about fat regulation and healthy fats-and-oils ratio in our diet because of the complexities of human metabolism, appetite, and body weight, and because of the inadequacy of the contemporary experimental tools that measure body needs.
From the Paleolithic or prehistoric era till the 19th century, people consumed oils as a component of their nuts and seeds, not in the form of extracted liquid. Therefore, though the prehistoric men didn’t care much about healthy balance of dietary fats, their consumption of the whole organic animal parts (kidney, liver, brains, tongue, blood, etc.) and fish, and fats in form of nuts and seeds, kept their omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio on a healthy level 1:1 or 2:1. Even 5,000-6,000 years ago, when people already used presses, oils were not yet commonly available, thus, mainly used for lubrication, medicine, and as a fuel for illumination. Only about 150 years ago, when the mechanically-driven steel expellers and hexane extraction processes came into place the use of the vegetable oils skyrocket.
In U.S. diet today, vegetable oils, with mostly omega-6 content, are extensively used in cooking, margarine, shortening, salads, and baked and processed foods, making up 17.6% of the total daily energy intake. The enormous increase of oils usage (especially, those with high omega-6 fatty acids) in the diet is the only factor behind the dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 jumping to a value of 18:1 and up to 40:1, which is the root cause of high epidemic of inflammatory diseases – according to medical research of the last decades. Therefore, the amounts of the omega-3 fish or flaxseed oil you consume can’t help in restoring your health when your omega-6 oils (such as corn, safflower, peanut, or soybean) are so much out of proportion compare to other fats in your diet.
Each fat whether from an animal or a plant source is a combination of a few categories of fatty acids: saturated, monounsaturated, and unsaturated (polyunsaturated).
- Saturated fats do not go normally rancid even when heated through cooking processes because of the physical properties related to the atomic structure of their molecules. They form a solid or semisolid fat at room temperature. The human body makes saturated fats from carbohydrates (sugars, syrups, starches) and uses them for a number of purposes. Dietary saturated fats come from animal fat such as cow butter, lard and tallow, and from tropical fruit such as palm, coconut, cocoa (cocoa butter).
- Monounsaturated fats are relatively stable, like the saturated fats are, and do not go rancid easily, and can be used in cooking. They are liquid at room temperature. Human body makes monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids and uses them in a number of ways. Most common monounsaturated fatty acid in our diet is oleic acid found in olive oil, macadamia, and avocado oil, and also in almonds, pecans, cashews, peanuts, and palm fruit.
- Polyunsaturated fats are not stable, therefore, they are liquid even when refrigerated. Their molecular structure is such (having unpaired electrons – radicals in their atoms) that these oils are highly reactive with oxygen, thus, go rancid easily. Therefore, the polyunsaturated oils (such as fish or flax seed) in soft gels or liquid must be refrigerated. They are even more sensitive to light and are destroyed 1,000 times faster than by reacting with oxygen; therefore, they should be kept in the dark bottles. If not saved appropriately, they expire before the expiration date.
Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are found in many foods: meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, seeds, grains, and legumes, vegetables, fruit, and in oils. Here are a few fats composition to demonstrate that both animal and plant-source fats contain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids.
- Cow butter contains saturated fatty acids about (65%), monounsaturated (30%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (2%) and omega-3 (2%).
- Chicken fat contains saturated fatty acids about (31%), monounsaturated (49%), and polyunsaturated (20%)
- Goose and duck fat contains saturated fatty acids about (35%), monounsaturated (52%), and polyunsaturated (13%)
- Beef and mutton tallow contains saturated fatty acids about 50-55%, with about 45% of mono- and polyunsaturated fats; suet contains 70-80% is saturated fatty acids.
- Pork lard contains saturated fatty acids about (40%), monounsaturated (48%), and polyunsaturated (12%)
- Cocoa butter contains saturated fatty acids about 57-64%, monounsaturated 29-43%, and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (1-3%) and omega-3 (0-1%)
- Olive oil contains saturated fatty acids (13.46%), monounsaturated (74%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (9%) and omega-3 (0.2%).
- Flax seed oil contains saturated fatty acids (9.4%), monounsaturated (20.2%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (12.7 %) and omega-3 (53.3%)
- Corn oil contains saturated fatty acids (13%), monounsaturated (27.47%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (53.5 %) and omega-3 (1.16%).
- Soybean oil (often labeled as vegetable oil) contains saturated fatty acids about (14%), monounsaturated (23.2%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (51 %) and omega-3 (6.8%).
- Canola oil contains saturated fatty acids (7.1%), monounsaturated (58.6%), and polyunsaturated – omega-6 (20.3 %) and omega-3 (9.3%)
- Sunflower oil contains saturated fatty acids (10.4%), monounsaturated (10%), and polyunsaturated omega – 6 LA (60.7%). However, interestingly, there are many varieties of sunflower seeds, where some contain high oleic fatty acid up to 82% (that is monounsaturated)
As you see, fats from animals have a significant percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids: chicken fat – 49%, pork – 48%, goose and duck – 52%, same levels as some oils from seeds and nuts contain.
The familiarity with the content of fats and oils allows us to look for a healthy combination of them for our diet. The total daily fat of 70g is recommended by health experts who believe that dietary fat should be about 30-35% of total daily calories of healthy adults whose daily diet is about 1,800 calories a day. Each gram of fat has about 8-9 calories. So, if about 30-35% of 1,800 calories = 630 calories a day coming from dietary fat, then your daily dietary fat should be (630÷ 9) or 70g.
Such healthy combination of fats in oils, it is believed, would include the following:
- Monounsaturated fats 80% of your total daily fat of 65-70g., which is about 52g,
- Polyunsaturated at about 10% of your daily fat, which is 8g or 1 tbsp (with a desirable ratio of n-6 to n-3 not higher than 4:1), and
- Saturated fat at about 10% of your daily total fat of 70g., which is about 7-10g .
If, though, your daily calories are in the range of 1,200 or 1,500 daily, then, it’s smart to cut down on your daily carbohydrates (sugars, sweeteners, and processed starches) rather than on your fats consumption (assuming your fats are the healthy fats).
Make sure you eliminate the hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils (margarine or spreads) from your diet because they contain trans- fats known as “silent killers” or “deadly” food even if consumed in small amounts. Hydrogenated oils yet are widely used in baked products, cookies, and other processed food, in all the pastries, candies, ice creams. The use of them is associated with a number of diseases such as autoimmune, inflammatory, coronary heart disease, cancer, food allergies, diabetes type II, and autism.
Polyunsaturated fats are termed essential (EFAs or PUFA) because they are vital for body functions, yet, the body cannot produce them. Therefore, they have to come either from food or supplements. Essential polyunsaturated oils, are alpha-linolenic acid – ALA (18:3) (ω-3 or n-3) and the linoleic acid LA – (18:2) (ω-6, or n-6). ALA is also called omega-3, and LA is omega-6. They are very important in cell membranes structure and physiology, in blood pressure regulation, nervous system, and in production of eicosanoids such as prostaglandins families that control inflammation. Various polyunsaturated fatty acids are synthesized in human body from the short chain polyunsaturated essential fatty acids by the processes of elongation and desaturation using desaturases.
- Omega-3 fatty acid, Alpha-Linolenic –ALA (18:3), converts to long chain Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) that is further converted to Docasahexaenoic Acid (DHA) – a eicosanoid of the anti-inflammatory nature. The EPA and DHA are further converted into prostaglandins and thromboxanes (by the COX enzymes). The omega-3 prostaglandins are anti-inflammatory and omega-3 thromboxanes are anticlotting. The EPA and DHA are also converted into leukotrienes (by the LOX enzymes) that are anti-inflammatory. Essential fatty acids such as EPA and DHA come from cold-water fish, and more of ALA comes from flax seed.
- Omega-6 fatty acid, Linoleic Acid – LA (18:2) is converted to long chain Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) that is further converted to Arachidonic acid (AA) – an eicosanoid of the pro-inflammatory nature. Arachidonic acid (named after peanut – L. arachis) is found in peanut oil, meat fat, and many other plants, seeds, and nuts. The best source of the omega-6 GLA – is borage oil containing 24% of it.
Eicosanoids are hormone-like substances, and the function of the two very important acids – the arachidonic (AA) from the omega-6 oils and the DHA from omega-3 oils – is quite opposite. Both the omega-6 and omega-3 have a highly complex interaction in the body’s regulation of inflammation.
Diets that are high in omega-6 fatty acids (LA) are a source of high amount of arachidonic acid, which a number of studies shown increases your risk of asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, heart disease, and many other inflammatory chronic diseases, which targeted 175,000,000 of people in America today. DHA eicosanoid from omega-3 fatty acids had shown to cure those diseases. Insulin resistance it’s believed correlates negatively with polyunsaturated fat (in particular, arachidonic acid.)
During the process of extraction, oils are heated to pretty high temperatures (450°-500° F or 232°-260° C) even those “cold pressed”, which encourages their rancidity. Then, the rancidity of them is taken care of by deodorizing them. To make them look transparent and clean, oils undergo the refinement process that destroys the EFAs and also creates high levels of trans- fatty acids. But even before the oil extraction seeds are brought to very high temperatures (520°F or 271°C) and treated with caustic soda and other toxic solvents to eliminate potential pesticides and herbicides. This destructs vitamins and minerals in oils.
When oils are heated (e.g., in cooking), harmful products such as free radicals are formed. They damage body cells and, thus, have a carcinogenic effect. When heated, fatty acids quickly react with oxygen, thus, undergo the oxidation that has pathological consequences for the body.
The best source of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids is fish oil such as salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, krill, and cod. The standard 18:12 ratio fish oil (of 18% EPA, 12% DHA) is the most desirable. However, this is not always retained because of the fish content coming from the South American warm waters.
Another great source of DHA is algal oil, which has 40-50% concentration of DHA omega-3, is used primarily for infant health or cognitive benefits. It is also advised for vegetarians as an alternative to fish omega-3. The oils from algae also undergo a refining process.
The best plant sources of ALA omega-3 fatty acids are seeds such as flaxseed (53.3%), chia seeds, and perilla with a highest content of them (60-63%). As we age, we lose ability to digest omega-3 from plant sources such flaxseed oil. Therefore, fish-oil source of omega-3 fatty acids could be a better choice for people after 60 than flaxseed oil.
The US government recommends 2 tablespoons of flax seeds per day to supply omega-3 fatty acids for a 2000 kcal diet. (The flax seeds need to be ground for the proper digestion of the seeds.) Two tablespoons of flax seeds (20 grams) contain about 40% of oil (that is, 8 g.) Of these 8 grams about 6 grams (1.5-2 tsp.) are the basic alpha-linolenic acid – omega-3 fatty acid. The 6 grams of the omega-3 has about 48 calories, which is a slightly more than recommended 1.5% of 2000 daily calorie intake. If you are getting omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil, then the flax seeds or flaxseed oil amount in your diet should be proportionally smaller.
The following is the recommended daily intake of flax seeds for children and pregnant women:
- 6 mos. – 2 yrs. – 1/4 tsp. every other day
- 2 yrs. – 5 yrs. – 1/2 tsp. daily
- 5 yrs. – 12 yrs 1 tsp. daily
- 13 yrs and up – 2-3 tsp. daily
- Pregnant and nursing mothers – 1-3 tsp. daily
Monounsaturated oils, known as neutral and as omega-9 (or ω-9 or n-9), are believed the healthiest oils for heart, according to National Education Cholesterol program; they do not harm the heart as the omega-6 fatty acids or hydrogenated oils and trans- fats do. They, however, promote insulin resistance (mainly, oleic acid) same way as the increased consumption of saturated fats does.
Oils such as olive (74%) or avocado (71%), or almond (70%), and Canola (58.6%) have the highest content of monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acids such as oleic.
Although more than 50% of Canola oil (rapeseed) content is monounsaturated fatty acids, with also 9.3% of omega-3, and 20.3% of omega-6, it’s not viewed as a healthy because of the way it was transformed. To eliminate the poisonous erusic acid from the source rape seeds, they were modified, becoming not unnatural (i.e., manipulated). Most of rapeseed crops (82%) used for making Canola oil are genetically modified to become resistant to pesticides. This is the reason Dr. Fred Pescatore warns public on using the Canola oil (abbreviation of Canada Oil).
Two studies in Canada, in 2000, found that rats had a shortened life-spans when they were fed solely on Canola oil. A group of scientists in Japan studied for 26 weeks different effects of monounsaturated oil – Canola – on spontaneously hypertensive rats, where soybean oil was the control substance. As a result they found elevated plasma lipids in Canola-fed rats compare to soybean-oil-fed and significant vascular lesions in the kidney. The fact that antioxidative enzymes other than G6PD were not activated is associated with the aggravation of the genetic diseases in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dr. Mary Enig also warns about Canola, about which some studies have shown that “it seems to retard growth, which is why the FDA does not allow the use of canola oil in infant formula.”
Government and health authorities insist that diet is the most important factor among other factors as a cause of heart disease and that modifying diet would prevent heart attacks. They say “if only people would do what they are advised, that is reduce their intake of fats, especially those rich in the saturated fatty acids, then the high death rate and disability from this disease could be reduced”. So the main dietary guidelines are based on “the diet-heart idea” or lipid hypothesis. Oversimplified, this idea means that dietary fats rich in saturated fatty acids raise the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. This initiates arteriosclerosis (a build-up of plaques in the arteries), which restricts blood flow to myocardium and tends to generate blood clots, thus, leading to myocardial infarction.
There is, though, a substantial body of evidence, showing that this correlation could not be proved. Walter Willett, chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health and the spokesman of the most comprehensive diet and health studies in the past five years ever performed on 300,000 individuals, said that “that data clearly contradicts the low-fat-is-good-health message and the idea that all fat is bad for you, and that the exclusive focus on adverse effects of fat may have contributed to the obesity epidemic.” In 1972, Dr. Atkins said, “fat was harmless, and it’s not the fat that makes us fat, but the carbohydrates.”
The N.I.H. spent several hundred million dollars trying to demonstrate a connection between eating unsaturated (animal) fat and getting heart disease and, despite what we might think, it failed. The food industry quickly began producing thousands of low-fat food products to comply with the low-fat recommendations, so animal fat was removed from foods like cookies, chips, yogurt, and others. An entire industry surfaced to create fat substitutes – hydrogenated oils, where olestra was the first, contributing millions for advertising the less-fat-good-health products.
The low-fat idea was dramatically simplified, ignoring the fact that “bad” saturated fats, such as from meat, chicken, cow or palm, or coconut oil (with its strong antifungal caprylic acid) are not deleterious because, although, they elevate your bad cholesterol, they also elevate your good cholesterol. The laboratory experiments to lower cholesterol by diet on the Tokelau Islands near New Zealand summarized the following: if energy is supplied mainly by saturated fatty acids (such as in animal fat or in coconut butter), blood cholesterol goes up a little; if the energy is supplied mainly by PUFA (such as found in vegetable oils and seafood), blood cholesterol goes down a little. However, Dr. Uffe Ravnskov, based on his thorough research, concluded with regards to that study that “Oddly, cholesterol in the diet has only a marginal influence of the cholesterol in the blood. Why? Because we regulate our own production of cholesterol according to our needs. When we eat large amounts of cholesterol, our body’s production goes down; when we eat small amounts, it goes up.
However, this does not apply to that group of individuals (a little less than 1% of humanity), who inherited a weak lipid metabolism, which causes a considerably higher cholesterol values(than normal in them who often have severe atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in early life, which could be the cases of familial hypercholesterolemia or some other genetic problem that interferes with fat metabolism. So this is the group that shows the highest correlation of the dietary fat and the higher cholesterol levels in the blood throughout the clinical studies and trials.
Walter Willett believes that “you will gain little to no health benefit by giving up milk, butter, and cheese (organic dairy products), and eating bagels instead.” For example, more than 2/3 of the fat in a porterhouse steak (from a grass-fed animal) may improve your cholesterol profile (at least, compare with the baked potato next to it). It took a decade for Dr. Gerald M. Reaven – the author of Syndrome X – to convince his peers that the reality is that low-fat diets will increase the risk of heart disease in a third of the population.
Dr. Fred Pescatore pointed out that “low-fat products (yogurt or cottage cheese) are evil because after eliminating fat, which is processing the products, thus, changing them from their original state, the food-producing companies then add sugars, syrup, starches, and other contributing-to-obesity filaments to low-fat products to make them palatable.” This is the cause that the obesity skyrocketing with the increased consumption of the low-fat products (stuffed with carbohydrates), trans- fats in processed oils and margarines, omega-6 polyunsaturated oils, the soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, and processed (flour-and-syrup containing) foods laden with the notorious carbohydrate – that is high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
Leonard A. Sauer and Robert T. Duchy from Cancer Research laboratory at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital found that cancer tumors respond to the fatty acids in dramatically different ways: when the tumors were infused with blood with omega-3 fatty acids in it, their growth rate was greatly slowed; it was as if they had been given fat-free blood. But when the tumors were infused with omega-6 fatty acids, they were jerk into hyperdrive. Sauer and Duchy found that the entire family of omega-6 fatty acids promotes tumor growth, but the parent acid – the linoleic acid (LA) – is, by far, the most potent.
Even a trace amount of linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) makes tumors grow faster, and the more is added, the faster they grow: LA seems to be the preferred diet of malignant tumors. In virtually every experiment in every research institution, feeding lab animals with linoleic acid has made their tumors grow faster and become more aggressive, while feeding them with omega-3 fatty acids has slowed their tumor growth and made it less likely that the cancer would spread.
Christian Paul in her “Benefits of GLA” said that GLA deficiency now is often caused by many metabolic and lifestyle factors (smoking, no physical activity) reducing the activity of Delta-6-Desaturase enzyme that limits synthesis of GLA. She also pointed out that “research shows that supplementation with GLA does not typically result in any significant increase in arachidonic acid (AA) stores.
C. Paul also noted that high-insulin levels stimulate the Delta-5-Desaturase enzyme and it may contribute to an increase in AA from endogenous synthesis, which can be typical of high carbs / high LA vegetarian diets, or hyperinsulinemia and diabetes Type II. The main sources of AA in the body, in most cases, are not derived from endogenous synthesis from LA and GLA, but come directly from dietary intake. AA is found in large amount in meats, eggs, and dairy products, especially, from animals fed with corn and soybeans high in LA (omega-6), which animals convert to arachidonic acid AA.
Wayne Coates, Professor Emeritus of the University of Arizona, analyzed a number of research studies of the ALA conversion in human body to EPA, and then to DHA. The conversion of the essential short-chain fatty acid – Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) omega-3 – into EPA requires three enzymes – two desaturase enzymes and elongase. However, the very same three enzymes are required for the biochemical conversion of omega 6 oils, that is, Linoleic Acid (LA) into arachadonic acid. That means that the two essential fatty acids, omega-3 (ALA) and omega-6 (LA) compete for the same enzymes for their conversion in the body. So if many enzymes are used for the conversion of the high omega-6 in the body, the less ALA is then converted. Every human, however, converts differently, with the amount regulated by what the body needs.
Another important thing Wayne Coates believes in is that a shortage of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet leads to low leptin levels in the body. ”Low leptin levels have been shown to signal the brain to deposit fat to increase energy reserves in the body. This means that adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids may help in weight management.”
Different individuals require distinct amounts of variety of fats. Therefore, to define a healthy combination of fats and oils is not an easy task. It is believed that a generous amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in your diet, with a lesser of saturated fatty acids, plus a small amount of polyunsaturated fats with omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of not higher than 4:1 will promote your health. An adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids in your diet protects your artery linings by reducing levels of homocysteine and blocking the inflammation. It helps maintaining normal blood pressure, lowers your bad cholesterol without depriving the body of good cholesterol. Omega-3 slows the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, inhibits the buildup of large areas of plaque, slows the formation of blood clots, and stabilized heart beat; it apparently reduces the joint pain, rheumathoid arthritis, and ADHD; it protects from an array of diseases including Alzheimer’s, and it’s beneficial in neurological development of small children.
It is important to know that conversion of ALA to EPA and further to DHA in humans is limited and it varies with different people. Women, for example, have a higher ALA conversion efficiency than men (2.5 times more) maybe because of utilizing dietary ALA for beta-oxidation at a lower rate.
So how many fats and oils a day would be a healthy dietary choice? The optimal amount of daily fish oil will depend on your age and health condition. Different fish oil supplement provide different amounts of EPA and DHA. Fish oil soft gels provide about 180 to 300 mg EPA and 120 to 200 mg DHA. A tablespoon of liquid fish oils may provide 500 to 800 mg EPA and 300 – 600 mg DHA.
ISSFAL, a United Kingdom-based International Scientific Society for the study of Fatty Acids and Lipids that includes scientists and medical professionals from 40 countries, continuously reviews medical studies on fish oils, fatty acids and lipids, and gives fish oil dosage recommendations based on the current medical data. For polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults:
- A healthy intake of a-linolenic acid (ALA) is 0.7 energy %
- For cardiovascular health, a minimum intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) combined is 500 mg/d.
The following is the ISSFAL recommendations for infants: “Infants have a higher conversion to DHA than adults. Because infant formulas must supply the entire nutritional needs of growing infants, recommendations about dietary fats need to be made with extreme care and in light of the potential interactions between all macro and micro nutrients.
Fat is an important energy source in infancy to support somatic growth and development. Scientific organizations are consistent regarding the total fat content of infant formulas with a range of 4.4–6.0 g/100 kcal that is equivalent to about 40–54% of energy content. These are the same values found in human milk, which are often used as a gold standard for infant feeds.
There are no guidelines for the level of saturated and monounsaturated classes of fats in infant formulas. It is noted that the level of saturated in human milk is around 40-50% of total fatty acids and that monounsaturated fats are present at about 35-40% of total fatty acids.
Trans fats are present in human breast milk in low levels (usually up to about 2-3% total fats), which is the maximum level accepted in infant formulas. The dairy fats that have been used in infant formulas contain a natural level of trans- fats as a result of hydrogenation reactions carried out by ruminants. In regards to trans- fats, the comparable risk of them from natural sources (dairy) vs. those from industrial sources are broadly debated (Chardigny et al, 2008). As many children graduate from breast milk and infant formulas to cow’s milk containing trans fats, the effect of this change of diet deserves further research.”
In summary, most regulatory authorities now permit the optional addition of n-3 long chain PUFA and n-6 long chain PUFA to infant formulas. Basically, maximal limits set so that the level of n-3 long chain PUFA does not exceed the level of AA.
There is huge debate about the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in infant diets and although there is no direct evidence for specific effects of dietary AA on measurable clinical endpoints. AA has, nevertheless, been included in most formulas mainly because of the presence of AA in breast milk and its physiological roles in nervous and other tissues in animal models. The specific role of AA and of the relation between AA and DHA in infant formulas should be studied further to better understand the balance of long chain PUFA – n-6 (GLA, DGLA, and AA) and n-3 (EPA and DHA) on growth and development and in regards to inflammatory conditions including allergies and vascular health.”
Remember that the best ratio of the healthiest fats in your diet would not be efficient in restoring your health if you consume them in amounts that damage your liver. If in a course of one day you consume some nuts or seeds plus oils in your salads or dressings, and oils in cooking dishes, and eat some fatty meat, and some dairy, and an egg, and an ice cream, and some spread on your bread, and a soda, and a candy, and cookies (or croissant, or pizza), where starches are combined with a generous amount of HFCS on top of your daily fats, and you do not work physically and/or exercise your body, and this continues for weeks, months, and years – then, it is little wonder that this results in your abnormal weight, plagued arteries, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and a host of other diseases and disorders.
1. The Hamptons Diet – by Dr. F. Pescatore
2. Necessity of Supplementation with Essential Omega Fats – by Christiana Paul, MS
3. Benefits of the Omega-3 Fats and Interactions with Omega-6 Metabolism – by Christiana Paul, MS
4. Benefits of Gamma Linolenic Acid, the unappreciated Omega 6 Fatty Acid – by Christiana Paul, MS
5. What if it’s All been a Big Fat Lie? – by Gary Taubes
6. Paleo Diet– the Loren Cordain’s interviews about Oils and Fats on the Round-Table radio
7. Know your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, & Cholesterol – by M.G. Enig
9. The Choleserol Myths – by Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD.
10. Different effects of 26-week dietary intake of rapeseed oil … on plasma lipid levels… in spontaneously hypertensive rats. – by Ohara N, Kasama K, Naito Y, Nagata T, Saito Y, Kuwagata M, Okuyama H. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Jul;46(7):2573-9. Epub 2008 Apr 22.
11. Text book of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlation, 6th edition – by Thomas M. Devlin
12. ISSFAL International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids